Peru is one of only three Latin American countries which have their largest population segment consisting of indigenous Amerindians, with around 45% of all Peruvians classified as such. Most are found in the southern Andes, though a large portion are also to be found in the southern and central coast due to the massive internal labor migration from remote Andean regions to coastal cities, especially Lima, during the past four decades. While the Andes are the “heart” of indigenous Peru, the country’s Amazonian region represents nearly 60% of Peruvian national territory and harbors a wide variety of indigenous groups that is rivaled only by its biodiversity. These tropical lowlands, however, are sparsely populated.
The two major indigenous or ethnic groups are the various Quechua-speaking populations, followed closely by the Aymará that are mostly found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the indigenous population who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua or Aymara, and have vibrant cultural traditions, some which were part of the Inca Empire, arguably the most advanced agricultural civilization in the world. Literally dozens of indigenous cultures are also dispersed throughout the country beyond the Andes Mountains and in the Amazon basin.
With an area of 1,285,215 square km, Peru is the third-largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, ranking it amongst the world’s 20 largest nations Peru also holds sway over the sea up to 200 miles from the Peruvian coast and has territorial rights to an area of 60 million hectares in the Antarctic. Peru is divided into 24 departments. Lima is the capital of Peru.
- 28.000.000 inhabitants.
- Urban: 72,3 %
- Rural: 27,7 %
Peru is a nation of mixed ethnic origins. Throughout its history, Peru has been the meeting ground for different nations and cultures. The indigenous population was joined 500 years ago by the Spaniards.
As a result of this encounter, and later enriched by the migration of African blacks, Asians and Europeans, Peruvian man emerged as the representative of a nation whose rich ethnic mix is one of its leading characteristics.
Oficcial languages :
- Spanish: 80,3%
- Quechua: 16,2%
- Other languages: 3,0%
- Foreign languages: 0,2%
As part of its rich cultural tradition, Peru features many different languages. Although Spanish is commonly spoken across the country, Quechua is a major legacy of the Inca empire, and is still spoken with regional dialects in many parts of Peru.
In addition, other languages are spoken such as Aymara (in Puno) and a startling variety of dialects in the Amazon jungle, which are divided up into 15 linguistic families and 43 different languages
The official currency in Peru is the Nuevo Sol (S/.), which is divided into 100 centimos. The currency includes coins for 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos and 1, 2 and 5 sol coins. There are bills in the denomination of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Nuevos Soles.´
Peru is a democratic republic. The president and members of Congress are elected every five years by universal suffrage. The current constitutional president of Peru is Alan Garcia Pérez (2006-2011).
- Roman Catholic: 89,03% religion peru
- Evangelical: 6,73%
- Other religions: 2,56%
- Any Religion: 1.65%
Peru is a naturally religious country: a diversity of beliefs and freedom of worship can be seen from the wide range of festivals and rituals that feature both Catholic fervor and the mysticism of age-old pre-Hispanic cultures.
Big Cities in Peru
- Lima 7466.190
- Piura 1545.771
- La libertad 1465.970
- Cajamarca 1411.942
- Puno 1199.398
- Arequipa 1072.958
The temperatures and the atmospheric cycles change from one region to another one.
On the coast there are 2 well define stations: summer (December to March) when the temperatures can reach 27 ° (80 ° F) and the winter (Mayo-Oct) that is humid and cold, with the temperatures lowering 12 ° C (52 ° F). On the coast the rains are no frequent.
The climate is dry and moderate, with two stations: a dry station (May – October) with sunny days, very cold nights and the scanty rainfall – the ideal time to visit the Andes. And the rainy station (December – March) – the temperature can change often extensively during the same day, of 20 ° C (68 ° F) to 2 ° C (35 ° F).
Jungle – Amazonia :
The area has a tropical and humid climate. The summer or the dry station is (April to October) with sunny days and temperatures over 30 ° C (86 ° F) and the rainy station (November to march) with the frequent showers and the high levels of tide.